On some HP laptops you randomly get this error message at logon time and the Aero themes are disabled.
Microsoft has a fix at http://support.microsoft.com/fr-fr/kb/2590550/en-us but it does not fix anything.
I finally found the the culprit was the Intel HD 4600 video driver from HP. I downloaded the latest driver from Intel (at time of writing it is version 184.108.40.206.4080) from https://downloadcenter.intel.com/download/24596/Intel-Iris-and-HD-Graphics-Driver-for-Windows-7-8-8-1-64-bit .
You have to "force install" the driver from the Device Manager. It won't install with the installer because it complains that the driver hasn't been certified for this computer.